On the contrary, the commons looked to Richard to be their champion, to eradicate his corrupt advisors and councillors and acknowledge all men to be equal, saving his own sovereign dignity. The revolt may have ended in chaos but it had begun as a highly organised challenge to the establishment, directed with precision by charismatic leaders, and aimed at specific revolutionary goals. These men were genuinely egalitarian. For if it had pleased God to have made bondsmen he would have appointed them from the beginning of the world, who should be slave and who lord.
This was a movement of the people, seeking wholesale social change. Across hundreds of villages in Essex, Kent, Hertfordshire and Suffolk, commoners rose up against the local authorities, burning and destroying the court records and estate archives that represented the rights and powers of their lords.
The leaders of the rebellion co-ordinated strategies over many miles through letters and messengers. Their targets were political, and they wrote down their grievances and demands.
They even sought written agreement and acknowledgement from the king. Those grievances were both numerous and legitimate. The devastation wrought by the Black Death in —49 had had a hugely destabilising effect on the the labour market, as demand for workers outstripped supply, and wages rose. The government responded with heavy-handed attempts to prevent the rural population from benefiting at the expense of landowners.
It capped wages, outlawed free movement, and strengthened the hold of lords over serfs and labourers. Serfdom lay at the very centre of public disaffection: for the unfree could be exploited by their lords at every turn. They were given punitive conditions in return for limited freedoms; to offer just one example, they may have been permitted to work for someone else but compelled to return to help the lord with the harvest each year.
All the while, taxation became ever more burdensome, as the unending war in France took its toll.
The Peasants' Revolt, also named Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major The revolt heavily influenced the course of the Hundred Years' War, . Another factor in the revolt of was the conduct of the war with France. Written with the fluency readers have come to expect from Juliet Barker, The Year of the Peasants' Revolt provides an account of the first great popular.
In November parliament voted to levy a poll tax at the flat rate of a shilling per head — this was three times the rate of the first poll tax, in , and no longer graded according to ability to pay, as a second levy had been in There was widespread evasion and refusal, and as spring warmed into the hot summer of , the government misjudged the mood of the counties in ordering ever stricter enforcement of the tax. At the end of May, a group of villagers in Brentwood, Essex set upon a tax collector, saying that they would not pay another penny.
This was not purely a local protest in resentment at a punitive tax, but a conscious, and soon widespread, uprising against corruption and oppression. Within a fortnight, rebels held the Tower of London. The rebel ringleaders were rounded up and executed. John Ball, who had preached his incendiary egalitarianism so persuasively, was hanged, drawn and quartered on 15 July. All legal concessions Richard had made to the commons were repealed in parliament the following month. The king was wrong. The atmosphere had changed, and over the next half-century dealings between lords and their tenants shifted irrevocably.
Richard II's war against France was going badly, the government's reputation was damaged, and the tax was 'the last straw'. John of Gaunt was so unpopular that power slipped away quietly from him, and before long he betook himself to Spain, where he strove, with little result, to make himself king of Castile by reason of his marriage with Constance, the daughter of Peter the Cruel. Conflicts over wages appear in Conisbrough in this year in relation to unpaid wages for ploughing, mowing, harvest service and work at the mill. Share Give access Share full text access. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Several government buildings were destroyed, prisoners were released, and a judge was beheaded along with several dozen other leading citizens.
Many fines and penalties were no longer enforced, and rents fell. In the longer term, it is unclear how much of a legacy the leaders of the revolt could claim. In Robert Kett led a rebellion that overtook much of East Anglia. While the rebels of sought to construct a new, egalitarian society under the stewardship of their king, Cromwell and his comrades would send theirs to the block.
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Ancient Egypt. The destruction of Pompeii. Try our range of BBC bestselling history magazines today! Subscribe Now. The revolt is judged to have broken out in Essex on the 30th May, when MP John Bampton arrived to investigate non-payment of poll tax. The south-east of England had always been its wealthiest region, and as a result there were very few unpaid serfs there and the peasants enjoyed a better quality of life than elsewhere.
It was therefore the hotbed of the many radicals who had emerged following the Black Death. On 1 June Bampton gathered the headmen of several Essex villages together to explain the shortfall, and they arrived with large crowds brandishing various weapons. Edward III had armed the peasantry and insisted on longbow practice for the fight against the French, and these men were not to be messed with.
When Bampton attempted to arrest one recalcitrant village leader he and his men were set upon and though the MP escaped at least three of his entourage were killed. By 4 June the now-lit fires of revolt were spreading across Essex, and delegations were sent to the neighbouring counties of Kent and Suffolk asking them to join in.
In Kent in particular they needed little invitation, after an escaped serf called John Belling was imprisoned the local villages had already exploded with anger and stormed Rochester Castle, where he was being held. On 7 June they elected a leader called Wat Tyler at the town of Maidstone — a tough and charismatic man whose origins are mysterious but who appears to have fought in France as one of the renowned English longbowmen.
Now it had a leader with clear aims, the revolt gathered momentum and purpose. By 12 June the rebels from Kent, Essex Suffolk and Norfolk had been coordinated, and they had reached the outskirts of London in their thousands.
The rebels were loyal to the King, who had now taken refuge in the Tower of London, but demanded the abolition of serfdom and the downfall of the feudal system that kept them separated by many social rungs from their monarch. His armies were busy in Ireland France and the Scottish border, and it would be difficult to put down the revolt by force.
Richard decided that he ought to meet the rebels, but the attempted talks failed when he lost heart and refused to get out of his boat onto the bank where their men were waiting. After this, the mob decided that negotiations were worthless and marched through the open gates of London, where many of the locals joined them. There they repeated their antics in Canterbury on a far larger scale, and the Londoners attacked the houses of Flemish immigrants who they felt were taking all the best jobs.
Soon events were badly out of hand as important buildings were burned and ransacked, and Flemings and aristocrats were murdered and left to rot in the streets. Now under siege in the tower, the King finally met the rebels face-to-face at Mile End, accompanied by only a small bodyguard to show his peaceful intentions. There he agreed to the abolition of serfdom, and charters confirming this were distributed across the country.
Another meeting between the rebel leader and the King took place at Smithfield on 15 June and this time Richard brought a substantial force of armoured men with him, though it was still dwarfed by the force of thousands of grim-faced rebels facing him.